Periodonthic Treatment

Periodonthology is the prevention and treatment of the tissues (the gums, the bone) around the tooth. In the course of the periodonthic treatment, the condition of the tissues is examined in several aspects: the level of periodontal disease is evaluated, the “pockets” of the gums and bones are measured, x-ray photos are analysed. The doctor established the factors that could have a long-term influence upon the formation of the disease and prescribes a certain treatment method.

The most often periodontal diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums that can reach the bone and grow into the periodontitis, if it is not treated. The symptoms of gingivitis are red, swollen and bleeding gums.

Periodontitis is the illness when the inflammation affects the tissues surrounding the tooth: the gums, the periodontal ligament, the cement, the alveolar bone. When a person has a priodontitis the gums are very red, they bleed not only when brushing, but also when eating, they become painful. The gums fester, the teeth are not firm, they fall out, because the ligaments, holding the tooth,    come undone, a part of the jaw bone diminishes and melts. There are various forms of periodontitis that differ among themselves in their nature, development and effectiveness of treatment. The periodontitis is diagnosed at any age, usually for adults.

Periodontitis is hard to notice and may progress slowly, until the teeth start moving. The main symptoms of periodontitis are:

•    emergence of the gums’ “pockets”
•    the gums bleeding
•    exposure of the surface of the tooth’s roots
•    festering gums
•    melting of the tooth bone
•    loosening of teeth
•    bad odour and taste from the mouth


The main reason of periodontitis is the solid and soft plague and the bacteria in it. The soft plague gradually becomes solid, the stones (tartar) are formed. The stones are not cleaned off with a brush, the mouth hygienist must remove them, sometimes – the periodontist. First of all, stones and the bacteria in them ruin the gums, the gums inflammation starts. The gums become red, swollen, they start bleeding. Eventually, the gums move downwards, the bone of the jaw starts decaying, the pockets of the gums are formed and the root of the tooth is exposed. The plague and stones fill in the pockets, and the process covers the tissues deeper and deeper. When the disease is progressed, the teeth start moving, and finally they are lost. 

Systemic illnesses, nutrition, harmonic disorders and the genetics also influence it. The periodontal illnesses progress, if the affect of the bacteria plague is bigger than the abilities of the body defense and reparation mechanism.
When periodontitis is not treated, it arouses not only the alveolar bone resorption and the total loss   of the teeth, but also it has a negative influence upon the whole body (for example, the blood vessel system). It is determined that this disease may provoke premature labour.

Treatment

In the development of the treatment plan, the team of doctors-specialists is very important (the periodontist, the oral hygienist, the odontologist, the orthopedist, the orthodontist, the endodontist). The primary aim of the treatment is to establish the possible reasons for the disease, carry out the hygiene procedures during which mineralized and non-mineralized plague is removed, to recommend the personal hygiene means, the way of the teeth brushing. Later, if necessary, the periodontal-surgery treatment is applied: 

•    Curettage – the operation of the gums cleaning the pockets of the teeth.
•    Gingivectomy – the operation during which the affected gums are removed.
•    Patch operations – during this operation, one of the gums’ layers is lifted up – the patch.
•    Plastic operations of the gums.

In order to avoid the recommencement of the disease, the supportive therapy is carried out. Every 3-6 months, the conditions of the patient is examined, the professional mouth hygiene is performed. Smoking (especially!), harmonic changes of the body (pubescence, pregnancy, menopause), the diabetes, heart and blood vessel diseases, some medicine, chemotherapy increase the risk of periodontal illnesses.
 

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